Isfahan City Mosques
Expert on cultural heritage and tourism
Isfahan is one of the oldest cities in Iran, which attributed the monument of Isfahan to Tahmurth Deoband, the legendary king of the forefront. This point reflects the history of the city on the central plateau of Iran. Esfahan, in the pre-Islamic historical period, was of great importance, as it was called the Gay, Gaba, Gay, or Gobain during the Achaemenid Empire. During the monarchy of the Parthians, according to the testimony of historical sources, it seems that due to the security that the city had against the Ctesiphon (the capital of the Parthians in Iraq), the “Partes” had made Isfahan a repository of their government documents and documents. The monarchy of the Sassanids, Isfahan, was in the realm of the aristocracy (nehdehgan (and al-Tabar Aryaninejad) and Mehrazhran) and was of military and administrative significance because of being in the center of the Imperial kingdom and according to Zayandeh Rood. Therefore, in this The era was also known as “Sepahan” and “Aphan”, meaning the camp of the army.) During the Islamic era, Isfahan was in three The historic monument, along with the ups and downs, was widely priced as the capital of the dynasties, “Salajeqa” and “Safavid” dynasties. Therefore, the city contains some memorials from each of these periods, including the “Jamaat-e-Atiq” mosque (Encyclopedia of Thousand Years of Iranian Architectural Revolution), Castle of Tabarak, Shah Dez Castle …. During the Imperial era, the Safavid dynasty, coincided with the 11th century AH (seventeenth century AD), was widely spoken in terms of cultural, social and economic life, and was considered one of the largest and most developed cities in the East.
Isfahan City Mosques
After the selection of Isfahan to the capital of the Safavid dynasty and the intellectual maturity of the peoples of Iran’s central plateau, during the 1400 years of Islamic civilization, several mosques were established in Isfahan, each of which in terms of its architecture and decorations, its type throughout the Islamic world Unmatched or even unique. On this principle, the city is also known as the “Dome of the Firoozes”, with the famous allegory “Isfahan Half of the World”. After the transfer of the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan during the reign of Shah Abbas I Safavid (1006 AH), a large civilian activity was carried out by the Shah and his agents, and at the head of them, Sheikh Baha al-Din Jabal Ameli, in order to modernize and improve the capital of the largest empire of Iran after Islam was carried out. Meanwhile, the activity in the construction of the mosque was also impressive in the capital of the clans that accepted the Shi’ism of the Twelver Imams as the official religion of Iran, and this was at the same time a suspicion of the school of Isfahan. In different areas of thought, he created a major leap in the development of Iran’s post-Islamic culture and civilization. On the same principle in most neighborhoods Safavan (apart from mosques), many mosques were built, in ways that are not covered by foreign tourists as well. Therefore, some of these tourists such as Dan Garcia, Campfire and Knights Shardin in travel logs It is spoken by the mosques of Isfahan.) About the importance of this issue to the “Knights Shardin” travel magazine, it can be noted that the number of mosques in Isfahan during the Safavid era is 162 Baba. Due to the limited time available, it has been attempted to discuss the mosques of Isfahan in the Safavid era, among which three of the most prestigious mosques in Isfahan, which during more than a hundred years of the city’s architectural and urban development (in the city) During the period of the capital of Isfahan (in the Safavid era), during the years 1006 to 1148 AH, they are selected and introduced.
Imam Mosque (Imam Abbasi)
“Imam Mosque” is located on the southern front of the “Universe” and is regarded as one of the largest and most beautiful mosques in the Islamic world for foreign tourists. This mosque in 1020 AD. AH was built on the command of Shah Abbas I. The architect, “Master Ali Akbar Isfahani”, is one of the most famous architects of the Isfahan school in the urbanization of the Safavid era. ) Due to the pressure that Shah Abbas brought to the architects to complete the mosque, his head and tile decorations were completed in order to complete the arrangement around the square in 1025 AH. Construction and decoration of other parts of this massive mosque until the last year of the life of Shah Abbas I (1038 AH) continued, but the construction and restoration of the spaces added to the mosque during his successors, Shah Safi I, Shah Abbas II and Shah Safi II (Solomon) continued in such a way that the last date in the records of this mosque is the inscription on the head of the west of the mosque, which dates back to 1077 AD, when the head at the mosque ends Receiving Shah Abbas I presented the mosque to “Hazrat Mahdi, the owner of the time.” About this mosque and its unique beauties have been talked about, but what can be summarized here. One of the remarks made by researchers and tourists is as follows: “At the end of the field, there is the role of a long eyed pebble that is built on the atrium, with its roof with Mogharnas and its tiles, and Qur’anic verses, and on its two sides there are two tall minarets. Which is used on the body of the same kind of spirals. Some researchers find this porch one of the most beautiful and most vivacious buildings in Iran, even one of the most impressive and most complex porches in the world. At the top of this porch, a peacock shaped on the front tile, symbolizing the birds of heaven. The main door of the mosque, which is located below the magnificent Entrances of the entrance porch, is covered with silver and gold and contains the poems on the margin of the Nastaliq line, and the year of installation in the era of Shah Safi I (with the letters Ajd). Passing through the porch at the entrance, we enter a vestibule with a hinged corner in the middle of a large gravel, and then without feeling the visitor half-turning to the right (at a 45 degree angle), which, on the one hand, causes To make the main building of the dome and altar of the mosque to the Qibla, and on the other hand, this deviation of the main building towards the entrance porch and the field so eloquent, that with It is possible to see the entire mosque’s main building in all directions of the square next to the entrance porch. After passing through this hall, the main courtyard of the mosque is shown, a building decorated with 100,000 pieces of turquoise tiles, and green and yellow with The ghosts of flowers and plants are in front of a spiritual clan. Initially, the main courtyard and then the main space of the mosque, which is four-eyed, appears around the main courtyard, in front of the dome floor and the main rooms and on the other side of the other porches Mosques and two religious and religious schools of religious and religious history, in which one of them is the Shariah clock. Here everything seems to be out of a material state and it is a spiritual and heavenly state. Everything in this place suddenly finds itself in a state of perfection, all beings and particles of the intermediate world, are manifested between humankind and the metaphysical universe and a shrewd bond between heaven and earth. The remarkable thing about this mosque is the magnificent dome of magnificence, the main nave with two flowers, this dome is in the form of two shells (two pockets) made in such a way that the sound below it is reflected several times. The main dome is from the main courtyard level to the top of the dome and minarets more than 50 meters. Another noteworthy thing in this huge building is the presence of numerous inscriptions on the entrance and the porch of the interior, all with the beautiful line of calligraphy professors of the Safavid era As Alireza Abbasi and Mohammad Reza Emami were written on the Avon tiles, all the walls of the corridors, the courtyard, the chapel, the forty pillars Sajd (main chapels) and religious school walls were covered with exquisite stones at a height of two meters from the floor, which is also clearer in the altar of the main chamber and the pulpit next to it. If so, in one sentence The mosque is beautifully described, it can only be noted that all the decorations of the mosaic tiles and the seven colors of this mosque are beautiful and the motifs related to it, all flowers and bushes and spring blossoms, symbolize the eternal presence of the soul in Gardens are heavenly.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
On the eastern side of the square, the role of the world is covered by a covered indoor mosque with its unique tiling and dome. This mosque is located right in front of the Palace of the Supreme Qapu and is considered one of the most beautiful mosques in the Islamic world. The mosque was planted at a time when the Chahar Bagh and the Garden of Thousands were being implemented. Thus, in the year 1011 AH, the construction of the mosque began and was completed in 1028 AH. At the end of the mosque, Shah Abbas and his brothers thought of building a mosque in Abbasi on the south side of the field. “Shah Abbas I” ordered the construction of this mosque in honor of the presence of one of the prominent Shiite clerics who came to Iran from Jeb Amal of Lebanon, named after Sheikh Lot Faleh Jabal Ameli. After the completion of the building, he used it for his worship and his families, as well as the Sheikh Phat Phala. It was also ordered to build a school next to the mosque so that the sheikh could teach religious sciences there. According to historical sources, Sheikh Lotfollah taught and worshiped at this mosque and school until his death in 1032 AH. Given that the mosque was the site of teaching Sheikh Lafala and the place of worship of the royal family, none of the foreign tourists visited the mosque during the Safavid period, and could not provide a comprehensive report. In one glance, Shaykh Lotfollah Mosque, in comparison to the Imam’s mosque, has a simple design, which is to say, a large dome on a square-shaped table that does not have a flowerbed. But what distinguishes it from other mosques is its unique decoration, its design and architecture, from the angle of the Qibla and the field. At the beginning of the entrance to this mosque, we are faced with a beautiful veranda, decorated with tile and mogharnas and slightly taller than the surface of the square. The inscription on the head, the Avon to the third line and the white tile mosaic on the Azeri field is “Professor Alireza Abbasi”. After that, we arrive at a corridor, here the architect, artistically, with a 45-degree spin, leads the viewer to the main chamber. This hallway has a rotating north-south axis toward the Qiblah, without the viewer’s perception of the mosque’s deviation from the angle of the square. The mosque’s building is based on a quadrangle, converted to the octagon in the upper part, and eventually joins the shaft of the dome into the circle. The dome of this mosque is a little lower than the Imam’s mosque, and has a Slalom line from the outside that is magnificently spread over the field of the dome of the daisy pea and offers a unique harmony in the role and color scheme. But the peak of the art of decorating the mosques of Isfahan is revealed in the main chamber and the interior of the dome of the “Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque”, which is the culmination of the genius of Iranian god-hearted artists. Inside the dome and top of it, there are networks of lemon-shaped motifs that grow larger as they move away from the candlestick. These motifs were surrounded by a simple brick, and adorned inside each of the rows with a foliage planted on the chalk. In the sequel, the bindings of the interior of the interior of the dome have been mastered, which have verses of the Qur’an. Here, the artist’s hand, Alireza Abbasi, has written the word of God artistically on the tile. After that, the light shines through the windows of the dome that drove around the dome’s stem, radiating light rays from the windows of the window with bright shades and beautiful tiles of the mosaic and seven colors with the slavic designs From the top of the dome to the bottom of the floor, the spiritual space is reduced to this small chapel, which is indescribable. Remarkably, the beautiful sanctuary of the Sheikh Late Phala’ah Mosque is decorated with thousands of mosaic tiles and beautiful Mogharnas. Here, the architect of this magnificent shrine, in his two holy graves in the altar, commended all his humbleness: “Belief in need of God’s disobedience, Mohammad Reza Bin Master Hossein Bana Esfahani”. The mosque has a winter nursery underneath the main chamber, where the teaching and preaching place, as well as prayers, were in seasons like winter. In the end, the beautiful mosque can be said very much, but in the end these sentences can be commended: “The smallest disadvantage is not seen in this building, the size is very suitable, the plan is very strong and beautiful, in short, an agreement, between one The world of passion and silence and majestic tranquility, which represents the richness of aesthetics, can not be the source of religious beliefs or heavenly inspirations..
The “Chaharbagh Mosque” was located in the eastern part of the Charbagh Grand Parish and was built in the late Safavid era for use by religious scholars. The date of the beginning of the year was 1116 AH. It was completed in the last days of the reign of the Safavid dynasty in 1126 AH and ended in the reign of “King Soltan Hussein” (the last Safavid king before the invasion of Afghans to Iran). Names like the Soltani Mosque were also called, also known as the “Mashhasha Mosque”, due to the fact that it was built on the orders of the mother of Shah Sultan Hussein, the mosque was built, and he also appointed the endowments for it. As it is mentioned, it is located on the eastern axis of Chaharbagh, and in the north it is a large market known as the “Shahshee Shahi” era, and now called “Art Market” It is also on the eastern side of the mosque of the enormous caravanserai of the Safavid era, which in recent decades has been transformed into one of the most beautiful residences in Iran, and even the world, in recent decades. The Chaharbagh School, including a magnificent and beautiful chalet There are seventeen arches in the form of two floors and bricks on either side of the head at the entrance. In the construction of openings and platforms on the sides of the courtyard, marble is used. The head at the entrance contains magnificent decoration Includes tiles and acrylic mogharnas that show underneath the arches and culminate in the artist’s tile experience and ingenuity after one hundred years. Isfahan Capital has manifested itself. “At the entrance to the mosque, like at the entrance to the mosque of Abbasi, it is magnificently decorated with wood and silver plated with gold and silver, with poems with various designs, goldsmiths and goldsmiths on it. Inside the entrance there is an inscription of a white tile on the Azeri field to the third line, which is on the line of Abdul Rahim Jazayeri. There are also lyrics to the Nastaliq line on the tiles around the head, which is written in the worship of Amir al-Mu’minnan Ali (AS). The inner part of the mosque, including the entrance penthouse, the main courtyard, the dome building with two minarets and chambers in two The floor is surrounded by the main courtyard, the entrance veneer is one of the most exclusive parts of the mosque, decorated with a dome-shaped ceiling, with large harbors facing the main courtyard and side corners. The walls of this section are decorated with beautiful mosaic tiles, along with beautiful inscriptions with the line “Muhammad Safhani “and” Ali Neghi Emami “, the ottoman ceiling is decorated with mosaic tiles, as well as a subtle shimmer in the middle of the vagina, which adds to the beauty of this part of the mosque. The school has a 5 / 65 and 5.5 inches.In the southern part of the yard, there is a dome building with a dome and a dugout with a height of 38 m. Domes and flowers are decorated with beautiful tile, domes tiles with flowers And white, yellow, and henna shrubs, and in the form of a slime on a turquoise. Around the dome below is a scroll containing verses from the Holy Quran with a third line. Throughout the porch, cellars, arches and roofs below the dome, like the mosque of Abbasi, are covered with colorful tiles, and inscriptions containing the hadiths of the Imams and the praise of the fourteen innocents, which emphasize the Shiite religion of the twelve Iranian Imams. Also, the main courtyard of the mosque with old and tumultuous trees along with the lake passing through it and the tile of the entire chamber of chambers and porches provides a spiritual and pleasant scene for each viewer. It is the same principle that most foreign tourists who visited the mosque even after the glory of Isfahan during the Safavid era have not been able to talk about the attractions of this magnificent mosque and to eliminate its many charm. Due to the limited scientific knowledge and limited resources available, this brief is an attempt to introduce a small part of the city’s attractions, located in the heart of the central civilization of Iran’s plateau, and “a great museum under the skies of God,” with the hope Which is accepted by all the heritage lovers of this land.
“Monuments of the Square of the Universe”
This entry was posted on Radio Culture Site.
One of the most famous monuments of the Safavid era is the collection of the role of the world or Imam Square of Isfahan. This square is one of the largest squares in the world, built in 1021 AH, under the command of Shah Abbas Safavi. The square of the world is five hundred meters long and one hundred and sixty meters wide. On the four sides of this square, four famous and magnificent buildings have been built which, like other Safavid monuments, have been used for various decorations, especially tiles. The tile style of the Safavid era is a mosaic and eclectic style. In the mosaic tile style, graceful and pleasant designs come from the side-by-side arrangement of the chopped and delicate pieces of the tile, but in the tile, the motifs from the beginning are placed on the tile surfaces and then go to the furnace for baking. In the first period of the Isfahan school, the Safavid era, masterpieces of arts and decorative arts are taking place, and the original, transparent and rich colors of the shining colors in the tile are very pleasant. The quality of materials used, especially in the capital’s architecture, is high quality and durable.
From the Safavid era, many monuments have been reminiscent of which there are four well-known buildings such as the Imam’s mosque on the northern side, the Imam’s mosque on the south side, the palace of Ahio-Ghapou on the east side and the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque on the western side.
Imam Mosque of Isfahan is one of the most beautiful buildings in Isfahan style in architecture. The construction of this building began at the time of Shah Abbas I and in 1020 AH and the completion of the internal sections continued until the time of Shah Abbas II. The magnificent exterior of the exquisite mosaic tiles, the name of the professor Ali Akbar Esfahani, the architect of this building, has been written in script on the third line and on the azure fields. Several inscriptions have been presented by the calligraphy artist of Safavid era such as Alireza Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Emami, Abdol Baghi Tabrizi and Mohammad Saleh Esfahani in Imam Mosque of Isfahan.
The main direction of the mosque is towards the Qibla and to the southwest, but the main entrance of the mosque, located on the southern side of the Square of the Moon, is so skillfully crafted that the visitor finds out that he has been modified and turned south. The beautiful and dome of the mosque, which is fifty-four meters high, has a throat drawn out and consists of two layers, or a separate crust. The architecture of the mosque of Imam is four-wheel drive and is located on two sides of the main chamber and south of the mosque, two schools.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is a small, elegant, and without central courtyard. The magnificent dome of this mosque is based on a Sasanian style on a quadrangle room. The construction of this mosque, built for Shaikh Lotfollah, the religious scholar of the Safavid era, ended in 1027 AH. In this mosque, again, due to the entrance to the eastern side of the square, a change of direction was made to the south, to the dome to the Qibla.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque Tile works in two types of mosaic and masonry. Lattice lattices are arranged very skillfully underneath a stem or dome, which adjusts the light to the dome. The tiles of the interior of the dome are arranged with little carvings, and the outer surface is covered with blue and white slate, which has an extraordinary front on the ground. Most of the inscriptions used at the internal and external levels are based on the lineage of the Safavid dynasty, namely, Alireza Abbasi.
The Imam Khomeini Palace is one of the masterpieces of the secular architecture in Esfahani style, which was built in the first quarter of the 11th century and during Shah Abbas I. This high rise mansion, built on the western side of the World Square, is built on six floors and an altitude of about forty-eight meters, each with its own decorative features.
The sixth floor of the Esqagopu Palace has been a special occasion for the formal and vocal parties of musicians and singers. On the wall of the middle hall and the surrounding rooms, there are hollow chairs in the form of various dishes and a variety of small and large openings. This insignificant decorative style not only is visually impressive, but also has a significant effect on reducing the reflection of sound and the natural transmission of music. Part of the paintings of the Imam Khomeini Palace, the role of the pen of the name of Safavid dynasty, Reza Abbasi and his disciples. Unfortunately, many of these works are unlikely to have been lost or severely damaged due to visitors’ lack of attention and passage through time.
The main gate of the Qaisarriya market is also the works of the era of Shah Abbas I, which leads to the great market. The big market of Qaisariyah during the Safavid period was a place for foreign merchandise merchandising and the sale of exquisite and expensive fabrics. On the market, the scenes from the war of Shah Abbas I and Uzbakan, as well as the hunting grounds by Reza Abbasi, were uncovered. Unfortunately, today only one part of it remains.
Formation of Isfahan School
كThe plurality of philosophical thoughts and the diversity of verbal currents in the philosophical domain of Isfahan during the Safavid era was much broader than that which took place in Isfahan at Ibn Sina’s time. If we want to analyze and justify this aspect of the distinction historically, we must say that in Isfahan al-Boijeh, that philosophical movement of Ibn Sina and the formation of his philosophical domain, the culmination of intellectual and philosophical thinking in the course of intellectual development of Isfahan of the four and fifth centuries Was considered to be in the end of the Al Boyh period, and then deteriorated with the situation that the Seljuqs made for thought and reason. This decline was a global situation and covered many parts of the Muslim world. But as it was examined, in such a situation, the philosophy of Isfahan was still broad, although it did not have the previous flourishing. In Isfahan, the Safavid era, the culmination of philosophical thought in terms of the diversification and formation of various fields of study has been formed since the middle of the Safavid period, although in this period the escalation of newsciering prevented the growth of philosophical thinking and even religious wisdom. With the assault of the Afghans and the conquests of Isfahan, everything collapsed, but due to the capabilities that were present in Isfahan, this philosophical flourishing was realized again, whose quantitative and qualitative aspects could be considered. To a certain extent, the philosophical domain of Isfahan becomes so broad that in the lesson of Mullah Ali-Nuri’s philosophy, four hundred volunteers participated and attended a high level of wisdom and philosophy. But in qualitative terms, there was a tremendous transformation in the philosophical sphere of Isfahan. That is, Mulla Sadra’s philosophical works were officially taught as textbooks, and in parallel Ibn Arabi’s teaching was started. Mullah Mohammad Bid Abadi and Hakim Mullah Ali Noori played a major role in this development.
This blossoming again after the decline of the Afghan invasion and the destruction of everything in Isfahan shows that the prosperous state of philosophy and wisdom was not merely due to the Safavid government’s supportive policies. These fields and their capabilities were created in a historical context of seven centuries and found social and historical sediment. Even in the woeful condition of today, this foolishly believes that the seminary of Isfahan has the ability and ability to revive wisdom and philosophy and achieve a spiritual boon and, as a result, the revival of the intellectual teachings of the Ahlul-Bayt (PBUH).
It is very noteworthy that Al-Bouyah and the Safavid government, with their supportive policies, created conditions for the creation of a blessing, but the historical and social conditions as well as the mode of activity of the founders of the philosophical field in the two periods were in the same way. The continuation of the life of wisdom and philosophy was no longer dependent on government policies. The critical situation was created for philosophical thinking and religious education in both historical periods of Isfahan, and after the emergence of a flourishing, a difficult and abnormal situation was formed, but all these circumstances have failed to illuminate the light of philosophy and philosophical rationality in Iran, and in particular Exit in Isfahan. All of these show that the source and depth of philosophical thought and verbal knowledge are far more radical than these. Note that this philosophical verdict, which systematically and methodically began from Farabi and not Kandi, began to reach Abbn Sina, and then the great scholars such as Suhrawardi, Khajeh Nasir, and finally Mirdamad emerged, and it Kama, Kifa and deepened, and then this great heritage was entrusted to the great Islamic philosopher, Sadr Al-Motaalalin, who has survived to the Allameh Tabatabai and his disciples until now, and has survived for more than eleven centuries and faces all political, social and confrontational obstacles. Blindly and religiously aggressive, and not only did not stop the growth of it in every stage of the experiment The new era of growth has come to a new phase. Therefore, the root of this great epistemic sphere in the Muslim world can not be considered solely in the translation movement and the Greek import thoughts and limited and temporary supportive policies of some states. Also, note that this philosophical rationality has been taken as a lasting and growing historical path in the context of the dualistic Shiite. These all represent the roots, and that is why nothing has ever been done from the teas. Indeed, during these eleven or twelve centuries, many taught ideas have been used to cut off the roots of wisdom and Islamic philosophy, but they could not cut off this solid tree of wisdom and philosophy, even a branch. One of these ideas in our time is a highly interdisciplinary and non-coherent area of differentiation, indicating systematicity as a school, and has been active in Khorasan, Isfahan, and even Qom. Instead of contributing to ideas and systems of ideological and anti-Islamic Shi’a and anti-Islamic systems and Islamic revolution, they fell into the lives of Islamic philosophy, especially Sadra’s wisdom, which is now the first line of intellectual struggle with those thoughts and systems. .
But as mentioned, this Isfahan today has many potentialities for the revival of wisdom and philosophy, and these talents and abilities should find the right fields for action. One of these areas, which is both easy to implement and effective, is that the professors who work in the field who work in wisdom and philosophy and have the ability to teach philosophy, formally hold the teaching of philosophy In the area to declare and destroy the dam and change the space.
Primary Providers and Establishing a Philosophical Domain in the Safavid Period
In the philosophical sphere of Isfahan, the eleventh century, from the very beginning, the differences of thought and the diversity and diversity of philosophical thought were evident. There was a variety of reflection and reflection among the founders of the philosophical domain in Isfahan, which were three, and were prominent in their teaching and field of study. It is here that there were more thoughts among the students who were raised within these three areas, especially that some of these students were related to two or all three disciplines. Therefore, the analysis of the philosophical personality and the overlord of these three founders can provide a clear picture of the internal structure of the philosophical domain of Esfahan of the Safavid era and provide the root of the intellectual-philosophical developments that have taken place in this field. But these three great personalities, who are at the top of the eleventh-century Isfahan philosophical field, who succeeded in proclaiming the heritage of wisdom and philosophy and rebuilding and enriching it, are:
1) Sheikh Bahayi. 2) Mirfindersky. 3) Mirdamad
Each of these three great wizards has unique characteristics and originated from new aspects in philosophy, and resulted in a plurality and diversity of philosophical ideas. These three first classes form the clergy in the philosophical domain of the Safavid era and established the philosophical domain of Isfahan during this period.
Sheikh Bahayi is considered one of the main pillars in the philosophical domain of Isfahan during the Safavid era, and his role in the evolution of wisdom and philosophy of Isfahan has been less analyzed. The nature and type of his influence on Mulla Sadra’s philosophical personality, although he has largely taught immersion lessons in the Sheikh, can be considered. Even if we are Mulla Sadra’s stubborn opponent and do not accept the type of philosophy and wisdom in Transcendental wisdom, it can not be denied that the cultivation of Mulla Sadra’s philosophical and verbal character in the field of Sheikh Bahai and Mir Damad has caused massive changes in the history of Islamic philosophy. . Whether we want to and will not evaluate both positive and negative phenomena, this is a historical fact that the course of philosophy and wisdom, and even mysticism, has been overshadowed by Mulla Sadra’s philosophical personality during the past four hundred years, and since his time Mulla Sadra Until today, a huge amount of denials and criticisms, as well as a host of rejoicing and rejoicing have been made. And all this signifies that Mulla Sadra’s philosophy is still vibrant and influential and influential. Mulla Sadra and his philosophical personality as the fruit of the two philosophical fields of Isfahan, Sheikh Baha’i and Mir Damad, alone, are sufficient to understand the extent to which the dynamics and novelty of the two philosophical fields of Isfahan have existed. But first, these aspects must be gained and analyzed in these two areas, and secondly, the type of influence of each of these two domains in Mulla Sadra’s intellectual and philosophical personality should be discussed. Of course, for both studies to be done, all the works of Sheikh and Mir are to be placed and subjected to the magnitude, and secondly, there must be a large amount of historical information, both in the field, especially in the case of the Sheikh Baha’is have a lot of deficiencies.
Imami Jumeh, Mahdi (2012) The Evolution of the Philosophical Field of Isfahan from Avicenna to Mulla Sadra, Tehran: The Institute of Philosophy and Philosophy of Iran, First Edition