Jam Online: Tile Arts is one of the oldest Iranian arts in architecture. This art is increasingly needed by traditional architects and the Cultural Heritage Organization, but with the death of every old professor, the number of people who know it well, and the traditional tile, is forgotten.
Tile is one of the most vulnerable decorations of traditional Iranian architecture. In the past, techniques have been used for tile, which is forgotten or less used today. Meanwhile, there are many mosques and historic houses in the country that need traditional tiles.
Tile art is one of the oldest Iranian arts in architecture. Tile, which was first used in glazed roses, is also featured in Iranian ancient architecture such as Choghazilb during the Ilam era. At the end of the sixth century BC, in the palace of Apadana Palace of Darius in Susa, unparalleled glazed bricks were used in the palace decorations, which depicted the soldiers of the Immortal Guards and other designs that were prevalent in the Achaemenid court in elegance and beauty.
Today, the restoration of tiles is more related to Islamic monuments. Of course, the number of these buildings is not low, which is why the art of tile is more and more required by traditional architects and the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization. For example, you can mention the tile of Soltanieh Firooz dome that finished last year.
Tiles in historic domes need to know and have the experience to do it. Maybe it’s safe to say that dome tiles are the first vulnerable spot in monuments, including mosques. The tile is more in contact with the heat and cold of its surroundings, and it leaves and breaks very soon.
Modern Tile in Iran
Since the foundation of the first modern factory, tile production in Iran has been in progress for more than half a century. The first tile producer was registered in Iran by industrial method in 1336 and was exploited in 1339. The production of ceramic industries until 1339 was manually used in our country. From the year 1330 onwards, Iranian craftsmen began to rebuild the old industry, and by 1342, the industry grew up with the formation of tile unions. Due to the country’s potential and potential in this industry, the rapid and rapid growth of this industry over the past 52 years has been such that from the production of 500 thousand square meters in 1339 to nearly 300 million square meters now Has reached (600 times). Over the past decade, $ 3 billion has been invested in this industry. About 40,000 people are directly involved in the Chinese ceramic tile and ceramic tile industry, and now more than 100 companies in Iran are active in the production of ceramic and tile types. According to the latest statistics, in 2011 the amount of ceramic tile production in Iran reached more than 270 million square meters, which is 22 percent higher than in previous years. Iran also ranked seventh in terms of exports of ceramic tiles and ceramics, and due to the high volume of construction and demand for housing, Iran is the eighth largest consumer of ceramic tile in the world. This is despite the fact that per capita consumption of tiles in Iran is 2.4 square meters and in the world about 5.8 square meters.
One of the traditional decorative-applied arts of Iran is the traditional tile. The use of glazed bricks is one of the most beautiful architectural developments that has led to the proliferation of beautiful tiles that over time have come into play with the changes that have been made to it, as we see it today. In the 6th century AH, tiles with turquoise and azure glazes became increasingly popular and were widely used in addition to glazed bricks. This art is an art of decorative arts based on the traditional architecture of Iran and today it is in New buildings also have many uses. Traditional tiles are categorized according to their type of production into the following categories: non-slip bricks, mosaic tiles, seven-tile tiles, gold plated tiles and enamel tiles. Perhaps the history of bricklaying usage may be related to the time of Babylon and the history of the second millennium BC. In Iran, examples of Achaemenid times are seen in the Iranian plateau buildings, especially in Persepolis and Persepolis. Until the early seventh century, the material used to make tiles was flower, but in the sixth century A, a handmade material known as stone dough or Chinese paste, it was customary and during the Seljuk regime, tile production was stunningly developed. Its main center was Kashan. During this period, three monochrome glazes, enamel paints and glazes were used on the glaze.
Qajar period tiles
In addition, simple workshops with the most basic methods, such as the tiling of “Sheikh Lotfollah Isfahan Mosque”, were created on the orders of Shah Abbas Safavi and were created in 18 years. The best: Historically, the tile is the fifth most basic way of decorating the buildings and the buildings. Bricks are glazed or tile and tile works of more than six years of the year. Iran is not the birthplace of tiling, but its orphanage. The oldest colored bricks found are seven pillars of mosaic found in the city of Uruqu in the ancient city of Sumer.
The most beautiful tile in ancient Persia was found in Achaemenid palace (four hundred years BC) in Susa. The world’s best art tile works in Iran, especially in Mashhad and Esfahan. The Tabriz Mosque, called Firoozeh Islam, was the most beautiful mosque built in the Islamic world. The use of this method is very common in Islamic architecture, and interesting designs have taken forward the growth and discovery of adobe and plaster decoration, and everyone interested in decorating with tiles They were Decorative tiling in Islamic countries has peaked and is one of the prominent features of Islamic architecture. Source: Young and History
What is a tile known as a tile? A kind of tile is a tile that is made by building and tiling with very small dimensions and the side of these tiny tiles. The combination of tiles with brick in the facade prevents the expansion and contraction of tiles. By doing this, jumping and crushing of the glaze of the tile is minimized. Types of straight lines in vertical and horizontal axes, and sometimes diagonal lines with a 45-degree angle and a chess piece of paintings. They are used in tiled work. The root of the term: Minor tile is a kind of tile adorned with cobwefy lines that are used to decorate different levels in traditional architecture. Kufi is an applied form of the Kufi line, which appeared in buildings and architectures, and because of its use on buildings, it was called the building line and appeared in various forms, which were easy and medium and difficult, It can be categorized, but exclusive, square or rectangular names can be adapted. The line of reasoning was not common in his writing, although Mowlana Sultan Ali Mashhadi believes that this line of writing would also be included in the lines. Since the basis of this line is laid out on the house, so that the first paper is cut like a chessboard and the house is arranged, and after the division of the house, the letters are arranged, and as this line is written in the order above It’s easy to put it on the walls with bricks to read both phrases and decorate the wall of the building. In this sense, they are called the “architectural line”. Layer: A line or a term is one of the types of Islamic calligraphy, which is a kind of angular koufi line, and is derived from the drawing of geometric shapes such as squares, rhizomes, rectangles and parallel and cross-lines. The line is a non-decorated and geometric type of Kofi line that is designed based on chess houses. The base of the Kofi is a horizontal and vertical stroke and a circular line with a uniform thickness in the horizontal or vertical direction, so that all geometric surfaces are filled with these horizontal and vertical entries. In some types of Kofi building, we encounter instances where both black and white are composed of words that both mean to which the Kofi is called a problem or interference. The line was derived from the Kofi Line. The old Kofi line was formed with the advent of Islam, and after the fifth century AH, it lost its initial use in writing the Qur’an, and was mostly used to write various inscriptions of religious buildings or religious books. Pious designs, although related to the pre-Islamic period, were invented by Iranians and used to decorate buildings. But after the Seljuk period, the spiritual line or the building is decorated with monuments, especially in mosques, and then in the periods of Ilkhani and Timurid, which is the flowering period of Iranian calligraphy, it has gone through its stages of development, and then in the decorations of the interior and exterior surfaces of the monuments Religious and ornamentation of the porches was used on the back and sides of the arches and the circular body of the minarets. Tomb of Mohammad Mahroub in Neyshabur
Meaning in the word means Hesin (shelter and high mountain), this meaning corresponds to this kind of line-of-sight, and this is a logical theory that the masonry is called a term after being desirable. It seems that the material line was extracted after the Kofi line and it was extracted from it during the Timurids, that is, in the nineteenth century AH which is a golden period in terms of line and calligraphy. This line is used to decorate buildings from the Kufi line In Kuwai, a dung is far away, and five dangers are not far and wide in the pitch line. In architecture, the use of peculiar motifs is made using materials such as tiles and bricks (separate and ductile), and are used to decorate the interior and exterior surfaces of sacred places, porches and minaret bodies. There are some beautiful examples of this tile in the shrine of Razavi. Due to the fact that the cutting of the masonry is easier than other lines that are full of curves and twists, and with the main element of the building, that is, the brick or the main factor in covering the mansions in Iran, the tile is perfectly coordinated, is used extensively in brickwork and tiles in buildings. . However, in rare cases, works on paper with this line have also been created. Nowadays, due to the fact that the decorative aspects of Kofi variety are very abundant, they can be used as the basis for new alphabet design in graphic arts. Some artists have used the Kofi script in recent years, and its integration with other types of calligraphy, to design posters, signs, paper headers and other related work. Layout applications in architecture, crafts, graphic design, interior decoration and pattern design and localization of web designs are also used, the most familiar example is the phrase “Allah Akbar”, which is on the fringes of the flag of Iran. Various examples of the traditional lineage in the old buildings, including the courtyard of the Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad, the shrine of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili in Ardabil, the Imam Zadeh in Shahrouh in Neyshabur, and other religious and historical monuments of Iran and neighboring countries, are seen in abundance in contemporary tile works such as the development of the shrine of Imam Reza And Imam Zadeh Saleh is also visible in the tradition of the elder. Professor Mahdi Panjehpour is one of the few professors who, in addition to his full-fledged skill in all aspects of traditional Iranian architecture and tiling, is able to read, write and execute masonry lines. He is the son of Ali Ali Panjehpour. Monuments – Mosque of Isfahan Ali Ali to the masonry line in Mashhad’s tomb and mansion in Mir-i-Mell Amol Mardin mosque in Turkey Source: iran-eng.com